Concentration and Human Health Implications of Trace Metals in Fish of Economic Importance in Lagos Lagoon, Nigeria
Oguguah et al. 2017, Journal of Health and Pollution: March 2017, Vol. 7, No. 13, pp. 66-72.
Background. The most significant sources of food-borne diseases are microbiological and chemical hazards. The health risk due to consumption of food from aquatic ecosystems contaminated with hazardous chemicals including metals has increased globally, especially in developing countries like Nigeria.
Objectives. The concentration and human health implications of trace metals in fish of economic importance in Lagos lagoon were investigated by determining the degree of contamination with heavy metals of selected fish from Lagos lagoon and assessing the possible health risks associated with fish consumption.
Methods. Fish of economic importance including Caranx hippos, Chrysichthys nigrodigitatus, Elops lacerta, Galeoides decadactylus, Ilisha africana, Liza falcipinnis, Lutjanus goreensis, Mugil cephalus, Pseudotolithus senegalensis, Sarotherodonspp, Sphyraena spp, and Tilapia spp were bought from fishermen fishing in Lagos lagoon. The fish tissue samples were digested and analyzed in five replicates for heavy metals (lead, cadmium, iron, manganese and zinc) using a Varian AA600 atomic absorption spectrometer.
Results. There were considerable variations in the concentrations of heavy metals among different species. The twelve fish species collected from Lagos lagoon were found to contain various concentrations of heavy metals and the levels of accumulation of these heavy metals varied across different species. Lead, cadmium, and manganese were present in all the studied fish species at higher concentrations than the maximum allowable concentrations in fish recommended by the Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO) and World Health Organization (WHO). The target hazard quotient (THQ) estimated for individual heavy metals through consumption of different fish species was less than 1 for all individual heavy metal in all the fish species.
Conclusions. Controls on the dumping of wastes in the lagoon are needed, along with regular monitoring. Currently, no potential non-carcinogenic health risks from ingestion of a single heavy metal through consumption of these fish species was found.
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