NANO Alumnus Bennet Foli and colleagues published the following article in the Applied Ocean Research

Variability of particulate organic carbon and assessment of satellite retrieval algorithms over the eastern Arabian Sea

Foli et al. (2022), Applied Ocean Research (127), DOI 10.1016/j.apor.2022.103289


Ocean wave forecasting for West Africa has mostly relied on global parameterization schemes and data outputs. Investigating non-linear ocean wave-wave interaction source terms (Snl) for the region, that forms part of the wave model parameterization schemes, is a contribution of this study towards developing a regional wave modelling scheme for West Africa. The study evaluates five non-linear source term configurations with the WAVEWATCH III® (WW3) numerical ocean wave model version 5.16; (i) No source term applied – NL0, (ii) Discrete Interaction Approximation (DIA) – NL1, (iii) Exact Interaction Approximation – NL2, (iv) Generalized Multiple DIA – NL3, and (v) Two-Scale Approximation – NL4, in order to determine best performing Snl for projecting significant wave heights and directions for the region. The wave simulations were run on three separate grids comprising a low resolution West Africa grid (latitudes 10o S – 30o N; longitudes 35o W – 15o E), high resolution south-eastern (latitudes 2o S – 8o N; longitudes 10o W – 10o E) and north-western (latitudes 10o N – 25o N; longitudes 30o W – 10o W) sub-grids. Simulations for the entire West Africa grid produced higher accuracies for the wave parameters compared to the higher resolution sub-grids. NL0 best estimates significant wave height whereas NL3 best estimates wave directions for the West Africa grid. For combined stations of the south-eastern sub-grid, while NL1 best estimates wave heights, NL3 best estimates the wave directions with possible alternation with NL1 due to insignificant differences. Similarly, for the north-western sub-grid, while NL1 best estimates significant wave heights, NL0 best estimates wave directions with similar ability to alternate with NL2 in projecting wave directions. Generally, insignificant differences exist between the source terms in projecting wave directions, especially for the north-western sub-region, implying that any of the source terms may be used in projecting wave directions without significantly compromising on accuracy. Thus, NL1 which best estimates significant wave heights for both south-eastern and north-western sub-regions can also be used in estimating the wave directions. Similarly, NL0 would be appropriate for the entire West Africa region.


  • Non-linear wave source term
  • Significant wave height
  • Wave direction
  • Wave forecasting
  • West Africa

Link for the publication here

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