Evaluating the long-term geomorphic process in-relation to hydrodynamics in the central coastal zone of Bangladesh
Sultana, T. et al. (2023), Heliyon. DOI: 10.1016/j.heliyon.2023.e17368
The central coast of Bangladesh is dynamic for its geographical location, hydrodynamic characteristics and residual flow. The research employed the Digital Shoreline Analysis System (DSAS), an ArcGIS extension tool, to conduct a historical trend analysis of shoreline. The study demonstrates that the central coast is eroding to the north and accreting to the south. The highest accretion value was found as 195.42 m/year, whereas the maximum value of erosion was estimated as −185.83 m/year, according to End Point Rate (EPR). The Linear Regression Rate (LRR) indicates that the average rate of erosion and accretion are −17.77 m/year and 17.88 m/year, respectively. Meanwhile, using Weighted Linear Regression (WLR), 0.48% of all transects demonstrated statistically significant erosion, while 0.43% showed statistically significant accretion. During the wet season, heavy river discharge leads to a low salt level in the ocean. Ocean currents hit central coast of Bangladesh from east to west, affecting the majority of the islands in the Meghna Estuary in the dry season. Changes in current directions can be seen during the wet seasons. Southern central coast areas are hit by south-east currents that split in two directions. The Sandwip Channel has a flow of 10,000 to 15,000 m³ s−1 northward. The Tetulia River, Shahbazpur Channel, and Hatia-Sandwip flow southward at rates ranging from 3000 to 17,000 m³ s−1, 14,000 to 60,000 m³ s−1, and 7000 to 39,000 m³ s−1, respectively. In the Meghna Estuary, the combined forces result in a counter-clockwise residual circulation, with the northward flow in the Sandwip channel and southbound flow in the Hatia and Shahbazpur channels. As a result of hydrodynamic, ocean currents, and residual flow, the Central Coast of Bangladesh is continually changing in appearance.
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